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GEM is a comprehensive electromagnetic gyrokinetic delta-f particle code that includes the full dynamics of gyrokinetic ions and drift-kinetic electrons. Magnetic perturbations perpendicular to the equilibrium field are fully modeled. The simulation is useful for studying well-magnetized plasma physics and is especially powerful because it is accurate at very-low fluctuation levels. Electron-ion collisions are included as well as the full-capability to model general axisymmetric toroidal equilibria.
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NASA required a rocket thruster able to produce a number of pulses at high specific impulse at a relatively low voltage (300 to 400V). The key problem was that existing propellants for liquid-fueled pulsed plasma thrusters (LPPTs) required high voltages to ablate and accelerate the propellant. The Green Electric Monopropellant (GEM)-fueled Pulsed Plasma Thruster (PPT) is a rocket thruster that is able to produce a number of pulses at high specific impulse at a relatively low voltage (300 to 400V).
The liquid GEM-type fuel has never before been considered for pulsed plasma acceleration but liquid-fueled PPTs have been investigated using water, mercury, dimethyl ether, and other propellants. The disadvantage of the prior art is the higher voltage required to ablate and accelerate the fluid.
In the future magnetically confined fusion research reactors (e.g. ITER tokamak), precise determination of the level of the soft X-ray radiation of plasma with temperature above 30 keV (around 350 mln K) will be very important in plasma parameters optimization. This paper presents the first version of a designed spectrography measurement system. The system is already installed at JET tokamak. Based on the experience gained from the project, the new generation of hardware for spectrography measurements, was designed and also described in the paper. The GEM detector readout structure was changed to 2D in order to perform measurements of i.e. laser generated plasma. The hardware structure of the system was redesigned in order to provide large number of high speed input channels. Finally, this paper also covers the issue of new control software, necessary to set-up a complete system of certain complexity and perform data acquisition. The main goal of the project was to develop a new version of the system, which includes upgraded structure and data transmission infrastructure (i.e. handling large number of measurement channels, high sampling rate).
The LA-ICP-MS analysis process can be thought of in two main parts: material sampling i.e. Laser Ablation (LA) and chemical analysis i.e. Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). A tiny, nearly invisible ablation pit is caused by the laser, into the girdle of the gemstone. There will be minimal damage as the laser vaporises only a microscopic amount of the sample for analysis. It nebulizes the material and the aerosol produced is transferred in a gas stream to an ICP-MS for elemental and/or isotopic analysis. An ICP-MS combines a high-temperature Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) with a Mass Spectrometer (MS). The ICP is an ionisation source where the energy is supplied by electric currents, which ionises the atoms. These ions are then separated based on their mass-to-charge ratio (m/Q) and detected by the MS.
The possibilities of the technique will enhance applications such as trace-element characterisation of gemstones and pearls for origin determination and treatment detection, and will open new research opportunities for age dating, inclusion studies and high-spatial-resolution chemical mapping of gems.
Iridescence has to be one of the most mesmerising and magical optical effects seen in gemstones. But have you ever wondered how it occurs? Gem-A's Collection Curator Barbara Kolator FGA DGA shines a light on this fascinating optical effect and tells us about the gems that are most likely to display it.
Beautiful blue turquoise is one of three birthstones for the month of December (in addition to zircon and tanzanite). It is enriched with real cultural significance that can be traced back thousands of years. Here, we explore the blue shades of turquoise and explain what makes this gemstone so special...
Chatoyancy is the gemmological name given to the curious optical effect in which a band of light is reflected in cabochon-cut gemstones, creating an appearance similar to light bouncing off a cat's eye. Gem-A's Collection Curator, Barbara Kolator FGA DGA explains chatoyancy and highlights some of the many gems in which it can occur.
Jade has long been revered by gem lovers internationally, but nowhere more so than in China. But what is it that makes this gemstone so special? Gem-A's Assistant Gemmology Tutor Dr Juliette Hibou FGA gives us an overview of jade, how to identify it and its significance in Chinese culture.
The plasma produced by its reactor is around 10,000 degrees Fahrenheit -- as hot as the outer core of the sun, Roscheisen explains, describing it as "a sun on Earth." It is a costly and energy-intensive process, but the use of solar and hydropower results in a zero carbon footprint, according to the company.
More production facilities are planned in San Francisco and London. For now, the Santa Clara site produces 1,000 carats a month, which is between 150 and 300 gems from every two-week batch. So far, the largest it has grown was a 12-carat stone.
The lab-grown gems cost the same as mined diamonds, with the online price set at 10% to 15% below market price, according to the company. A loose diamond from its online shop costs from $305 for a 0.38 carat round-cut gem to $23,000 for a 2.30 carat gem.
Certain gems are rare and valuable. A mined rock may contain only 1 gem at a time. Use your geological scanner to find gems quickly. If you plan to sell them, remember that raw gems are often more valuable than processed alloys.
Each weapon does its own amount of damage and has its own cooldown timer at which it fills up. Both of which can be improved by upgrading your weapons. These will require various amounts of different gems and oil, and on the higher levels, Nuclear Energy from the Reactor.
After incubation in plasma at 37C for 24 h, gemcitabine was degraded by 24.6% for the mPEG-PLG-GEM, 14.7% for the mPEG-PLG-GEM/CaP nanoparticles, and 90% for the free gemcitabine solution. It was observed that mPEG-PLG-GEM and mPEG-PLG-GEM/CaP improved the area-under-curve (AUC) values by 5.26-fold and 6.33-fold compared to free drug, respectively.
The amide bond linked gemcitabine polymers was able to protect GEM from cytidine deaminase degradation in vivo, and the skeleton formed by the calcium phosphate enhanced the stability and prolonged the half-life of GEM. Importantly, mPEG-PLG-GEM/CaP nanoparticles elevated the GEM plasma concentration in an animal model.
Integral to molecular diagnostic operations is the generation of high quality plasma from whole blood samples. The Vivid Plasma Separation membrane utilizes a patented process where a highly asymmetric membrane is specifically engineered for the generation of plasma from whole blood. The highly asymmetric nature of the membrane allows the cellular components of the blood (red cells, white cells, and platelets) to be captured in the larger pores without lysis, while the plasma flows down into the smaller pores on the downstream side of the membrane. The rapid separation process yields plasma similar in HPLC and SDS PAGE profiles to traditional centrifuged plasma in less than two minutes.
Non-specific binding of clinically relevant biomarkers is a concern when working with porous materials in diagnostic applications. Whole blood processed through the Vivid Plasma Separation membrane has shown equivalent 2DE protein profiles for the cardiac biomarker Troponin I as compared to centrifuged plasma. These data indicate that the protein concentration of clinical biomarkers is not reduced when processed through the membrane making it an ideal material for diagnostic applications.
Note: The product performance characteristics outlined above are determined using EDTA collected whole blood with typical hematocrit content of 45.6%. It is important to ensure that the membrane lies flat, that no end contact occurs, and to seal the edges by compression, etc. In addition, the underlying material has enough capillary force to wick the plasma from the membrane.
Note: The sample blood volume capacity of Vivid Plasma Separation membrane is defined as the amount of whole blood per cm2 of medium that is rapidly and consistently separated ( 041b061a72